Full text: Wehner, Sigrid: Exploring trends and patterns of nonresponse

1. INTRODUCTION TO THE NONRESPONSE PROBLEM 
6 
1.2 The Practical World: Typology of Errors in Gathering Survey Data 
FIGURE 1 below presents four steps in the procedure from the total target population to a 
completed survey data set. It is based on the terminology given by Kish' (1965) and Groves' 
(1989). 
FIGURE 1: The Sampling Process and Possible Errors 
Possible Errors in Gathering Survey Data 
step 1: getting the list or frame 
coverage 
total 
sampling frame 
— 
errors 
population 
step 2: sampling process 
 
sample 
errors 
(of drawn addresses of 
 
caused by 
target persons) 
sampling design 
step 3: data collection 
incapacity; 
uncompleted interviews; 
non-contacts 
statistical 
errors of non¬ 
E 
observation 
inference 
refusals 
completed 
errors of 
interviews 
— 
observation 
V 
step 4: data editing 
 
edited interviews 
post data collection 
 
 
- the survey data 
errors 
Whereas Kish as well as Groves both work out the terminology concept as a taxonomy, the 
graph demonstrates the character of a process through which one has to go in order to obtain 
the survey data. 
Kish, Leslie (1965). Survey Sampling. Chapter 1, Introduction. see: "A Taxonomy of Survey Units and 
Concepts", pp. 6-8. 
Groves, Robert M. (1989). Survey Errors and Survey Costs. Chapter 1, pp. 6-47.
	        
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